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Django + uWSGI + Nginx

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This is a brief introduction of production environment configuration for Django, uWSGI and Nginx. If you haven’t installed virtualenv, do it first.

Install Django, uWSGI, Nginx

Create a virtual environment, and activate it

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virtualenv en1
source en1/bin/activate

Use pip to install Django and uWSGI

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pip install django
pip install uwsgi

Install Nginx

Use your package manager to install Nginx, like apt-get install nginx, yum install nginx, or emerge nginx.

Configuration

Django and uWSGI

Since Django is a WSGI already, it’s easy to configure. What you need to do is creat a uwsgi.ini file. Here is an example.

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[uwsgi]
socket=/var/run/uwsgi.sock
virtualenv=/home/leon/en1/
chdir=/home/leon/mysite
module=mysite.wsgi:application
master=True
workers=8
pidfile=/home/leon/mysite/uwsgi-master.pid
max-requests=5000
  • socket is for communication with Nginx.
  • virtualenv is the path of your virtual environment.
  • chdir is you project folder. For this example, assume you have created a project called mysite in folder /home/leon (django-admin startproject mysite).
  • module is the entrance to your application. If you use the current version of Django, the django-admin startproject command should have genereated a wsgi.py file for you with an application variable in it, so just substite mysite with your project name.
  • master means this uwsgi worker is master.
  • workers is the number of uwsgi workers.
  • pidfile is the pid of the running uwsgi process. You can use it to stop or reload your uWSGI server.

uWSGI and Nginx

You may would like to use a port to connect uWSGI and Nginx, but in this example, let’s use a socket, as it’s very easy as well plus it don’t need to occupy a port.(Someone says it’s more efficient with socket than a port in some systems.)

For example we use socket=/var/run/uwsgi.sock in the uwsgi.ini file, we need to configure nginx like this:

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user  leon;
worker_processes  1;

events {
    worker_connections  1024;
    use epoll;
}

http {
    include       mime.types;
    default_type  application/octet-stream;

    log_format  main  '$remote_addr - $remote_user [$time_local] "$request" '
                      '$status $body_bytes_sent "$http_referer" '
                      '"$http_user_agent" "$http_x_forwarded_for"';

    access_log  logs/access.log  main;
    sendfile        on;

    keepalive_timeout  65;
    gzip  on;

    server {
        listen       80;
        server_name  localhost;

        location /static/ {
            root /home/leon/mysite/;
        }

        location / {
            uwsgi_pass      unix:///var/run/uwsgi.sock;
            include         uwsgi_params;
            uwsgi_param     SCRIPT_NAME '';
        }

    }
}
  • user: it’s better to use the same user as the one for the uWSGI server.
  • usgi_pass: the sock file to communicate with uWSGI.
  • don’t forget include uwsgi_params;

Start uWSGI and Nginx

(The following commands are for Gentoo system.)

Configure Nginx to autostart with system.

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rc-config add nginx default

Start Nginx.

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/etc/init.d/nginx start

To start uWSGI, first use this command to test if all these work:

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uwsgi --ini uwsgi.ini

If everything is OK, you need to find a daemon tool to monitor uWSGI servers and restart them if error happens, like daemontools or supervisord.

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